Widely trusted as a cause for losing hair in the mid 20s, is diet. We all know a bit about this as the media is full to the brim daily with articles and findings about diets, side-effects and the negative aesthetics of poor health choices. However it’s very much true; if you’re not getting enough regular nutrients into your digestive system, you’re not getting them anywhere near your hair follicles either. On the other hand, extreme dieting or general physical trauma may also be a reason for hair loss in the mid 20s, so care should always be taken to ensure a balanced diet and gradual, healthy weight loss with the support of a dietician, if needed.
I am a 22 year old female and the hair on my head is rapidly falling out. You can clearly see my scalp throughout the top. I saw my dermatologist and she recommended I use the men's rogaine solution. I am concerned that it will not work for me and that I risk loosing more hair (Which i can not afford). I am very concerned and this situation is detrimental to my self esteem. Please help. I feel... READ MORE
Androgenic Alopecia: This affects both men and women, but is more common in men. This is also referred to as “male pattern baldness” and can affect men as early as their late teenage years or early twenties. Typically, this type of alopecia will produce a gradually receding hairline, which eventually results in loss or thinning of most of the hair on the scalp. This is the most common type of alopecia that causes early hair loss.
In men, male pattern baldness usually begins with thinning hair in specific areas. Typically these are around the crown, along the top of the head and/or a receding hairline. Men’s hair loss may involve one, two or all three of these patterns, and they may join up to form larger bald patches. A measuring tool known as The Norwood Scale provides a guide to “how far gone” a man’s hairloss is.

Hi David, I understand where you are coming from. Losing hair at a young age is not a nice experience. Luckily, there is a lot more you could be doing besides the shampoo. Honestly I don’t know how much this will help in the long term. To get you started, you’ll probably have to adjust a few things in your diet and lifestyle to stop further loss/ regrow lost areas. A simple thing to get started would be to use a dermaroller (or even better a dermastamp) along the hairline. Remember though, pattern baldness starts from the inside out. It’s basically a sign that your body is out of balance. So try to sort that out as well.
Trich is mostly considered untreatable; there's not enough research into the mental, or neurophysiological mechanisms of action to really underpin the cause. I suspect it works in a similar way to any other addiction; a stimulus like a small amount of pain induces a dopamine response, a pleasurable feeling. After a while, your physiological urge for the dopamine hit overpowers your reasoning to stop.

Fair enough, I understand it. And I agree, some women love bald men. Guys like Jason Statham and Kelly Slater are heroes of mine and certainly don’t suffer in the romance department because of their lack of hair (Gisele Bundchen and Rosie Huntington-Whitely to name a few of their romances, and possibly two of the most beautiful women of earth.) However, losing hair at a younger age is clearly traumatic for some people, so this website is for them 🙂


How to use minoxidil: Be sure that your hair and scalp are dry. Using the dropper or spray pump that's provided with the over-the-counter solution, apply it twice daily to every area where your hair is thinning. Gently massage it into the scalp with your fingers so it can reach the hair follicles. Then air-dry your hair, wash your hands thoroughly, and wash off any solution that has dripped onto your forehead or face. Don't shampoo for at least four hours afterwards.
What explains these peculiar findings? Dr. Guyuron said wealth often goes hand in hand with stress. And women with lots of money may be more likely to spend more on hair products. Dr. Guyuron said spending more on hair products has been tied to hair loss in women - perhaps because they use more of the products, including some that might damage hair, or because they're using more hair products because they're already losing their hair and trying to compensate.
Hair transplantation is usually carried out under local anaesthetic. A surgeon will move healthy hair from the back and sides of the head to areas of thinning. The procedure can take between four and eight hours, and additional sessions can be carried out to make hair even thicker. Transplanted hair falls out within a few weeks, but regrows permanently within months. Hair transplants, takes tiny plugs of skin, each which contains a few hairs, and implants the plugs into bald sections. The plugs are generally taken from the back or sides of the scalp. Several transplant sessions may be necessary.[33]

Decades ago, this would have been the most accurate way of determining your odds—looking at old photos of your ancestors—but now there are more scientific means of predicting hair loss. These days, your doctor can take a swab of DNA from the saliva inside your cheek, and it will show how sensitive you are to dihydrotestosterone (known as DHT, which is the hormone created by the body’s testosterone). This swab will also tell you your odds for balding (and how quickly), and can predict how you might react to hair-loss medications like Propecia or Finasteride treatment.


Just as pregnancy hormone changes can cause hair loss, so can switching or going off birth-control pills. This can also cause telogen effluvium, and it may be more likely if you have a family history of hair loss. The change in the hormonal balance that occurs at menopause may also have the same result. “The androgen (male hormone) receptors on the scalp becoming activated,” explains Mark Hammonds, MD, a dermatologist with Scott & White Clinic in Round Rock, Texas. “The hair follicles will miniaturize and then you start to lose more hair.”
decrease in your blood Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels. Finasteride can affect a blood test called PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen) for the screening of prostate cancer. If you have a PSA test done you should tell your healthcare provider that you are taking Finasteride because Finasteride decreases PSA levels. Changes in PSA levels will need to be evaluated by your healthcare provider. Any increase in follow-up PSA levels from their lowest point may signal the presence of prostate cancer and should be evaluated, even if the test results are still within the normal range for men not taking Finasteride. You should also tell your healthcare provider if you have not been taking Finasteride as prescribed because this may affect the PSA test results. For more information, talk to your healthcare provider.
Trichotillomania, classified as an “impulse control disorder,” causes people to compulsively pull their hair out. “It’s sort of like a tic, the person is constantly playing and pulling their hair,” says Dr. Glashofer says. Unfortunately, this constant playing and pulling can actually strip your head of its natural protection: hair. Trichotillomania often begins before the age of 17 and is four times as common in women as in men.
I've never worn a wig, the remaining hair I do have is thick and really curly so it tends to hide things for me. I feel if it significantly progressed and I couldn't control it any more, then I almost definitely would. The high quality ones are very expensive though, which is a barrier for a lot of sufferers. I'm considering shaving my hair at the moment; but I know it'd be impossible for me not to pull the re-growth entirely.
After I had my first baby, I started getting post-partum hair shedding, which is totally normal. When you're pregnant you retain all your hair and it's shiny and thick and lovely, and then once you give birth it starts to shed. It can seem quite extreme because you haven't been shedding your hair naturally over time like you would when you're not pregnant, but it's totally normal.
In other words, no one’s truly safe from the condition. But even in the face of these seemingly insurmountable odds, not all hope is lost for your precious locks. To show your hair some TLC (and prevent further thinning), look out for these surprising culprits—and combat them accordingly. And if you need a quick way to mask any thinning hair, just check out the 15 Best Haircuts for Looking Instantly Younger.
"Macafem nutrients help restore natural hormones in women. Unlike hormone drugs, which override your body's natural endocrine functioning with synthetic hormones, Macafem acts totally different in your body. It nourishes and stimulates your own natural hormone production by inducing the optimal functioning of the endocrine glands." Click on the following link to discover more about Macafem.

This just goes to show how DESPERATE the EUssr now is to keep our money and that is all they want, if they are making offers like this.The other reason is that once the UK has left the corrupt EUssr the ruling junta will have their hands full trying to stop any other serfdom's from trying to leave. In saying that the whole ponzi scheme will come crashing down vert soon.


I posted some pictures because I am not sure if I am loosing my hair. I have recently noticed some thining in the front and back but I am not sure if I am really loosing my hair or if it recently has just been looking different. I also notice when I stroke my hand through it a lot of strands are easy to pull out. What can I do? Progaine? Rogaine? I am 22. Thanks! READ MORE

Another of the key clues is a feeling that the hair is not as thick as usual – for instance when putting the hair into a ponytail, it may seem less dense. Although this may make it difficult for any obvious changes to be observed, many women intuitively know when something is different – and this would be a good time to see a hair loss expert to ascertain exactly what is going on.
In either sex, hair loss from androgenetic alopecia occurs because of a genetically determined shortening of anagen, a hair's growing phase, and a lengthening of the time between the shedding of a hair and the start of a new anagen phase. (See "Life cycle of a hair.") That means it takes longer for hair to start growing back after it is shed in the course of the normal growth cycle. The hair follicle itself also changes, shrinking and producing a shorter, thinner hair shaft — a process called "follicular miniaturization." As a result, thicker, pigmented, longer-lived "terminal" hairs are replaced by shorter, thinner, non-pigmented hairs called "vellus."

Iron supplements. Iron deficiency could be a cause of hair loss in some women . Your doctor may test your blood iron level, particularly if you're a vegetarian, have a history of anemia, or have heavy menstrual bleeding. If you do have iron deficiency, you will need to take a supplement and it may stop your hair loss. However, if your iron level is normal, taking extra iron will only cause side effects, such as stomach upset and constipation.


sick fractal donkey tail feat. a steamin hangover and leaves of a mystery #palm. #science march was chill n did some ~networking~, got cake w/ some pals, then let @deborahpowtattoos loose on my leg again. 🌱🌿🌵 its true, covering yourself in #tattoos won't make you suddenly love your body, but will slowly teach you empathy and understanding for yourself. reclaiming my body after years of self hatred is gonna be a long process, but at least i can jazz myself up ya know. (I know I've worn this jumper in every photo ok) (all this said i just got home to a letter from the community mental health team saying they can't help me) #plantscience #ayeforsci #sciencemarch #plantpower #me #bosypositivity #planthoarder
Fifty is the average age for menopause, but changes to your hair can begin long before, and is one reason why hair thinning during menopause is difficult to counteract. Nobody over 40 has the same volume of hair they had in their twenties, but menopause is an accelerating cause. The pattern of menopausal hair thinning is similar to the early stages of male pattern hair loss.

Nutrition can play a part. If you're not eating a well-balanced diet or are severely dieting or anorexic, it will affect your hair. However, if it is nutritional, it will be a temporary hair loss. Return to a well-balanced diet and hair should return in 4 – 6 months. Supplements must be used with caution and women must understand that vitamins in excess, even those purported to help grow hair, can be detrimental and have an adverse affect. In this day and age, people are rarely deficient in the hair loss vitamins folic acid and biotin. There would be other symptoms beyond hair loss. A B-vitamin rich supplement can help grow hair, but it might not make more hair. I advise using any supplement with caution and eating vitamin-rich foods instead. And ALWAYS tell your physician the vitamins, herbs, and medications (over the counter and prescription) you are using.


If you have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), your hormones are always out of whack. Your body makes more male hormones, or androgen, than it should. This can cause extra hair to sprout on your face and body while the hair on your head thins out. PCOS can also lead to ovulation problems, acne, and weight gain. But sometimes thinning hair is the only obvious sign. 

The Belgravia Centre is an organisation specialising in hair growth and hair loss prevention with two clinics and in-house pharmacies in Central London, UK. If you are worried about hair loss you can arrange a free consultation with a hair loss expert or complete our Online Consultation Form from anywhere in the world. View our Hair Loss Success Stories, which includes the world’s largest gallery of hair growth comparison photos and demonstrates the levels of success that so many of Belgravia’s patients achieve. You can also phone 020 7730 6666 any time to arrange a free consultation.
Unfortunately for men, there’s a four in seven chance of receiving the baldness gene which means hair loss could occur for you really at anytime during adulthood. Many of our clients have recognised that their fathers or their mothers if the balding is on the female side, started at a certain point in their lives and that the time-scales are similar or identical.
I too have spent 25 year researching what causes balding. I have found other reasons that cause balding that I believe to be true. The common link for all humans balding on the vertex of the head is the mandible is in a class 2 skeletal position. This causes the condyle to occlude the superficial temporal artery where it passes between the base of the skull and the condyle. In a normal healthy temporalmandibular joint, there is sufficient clearance for the superficial temporal artery. The skeletal class 2 position places the teeth, the mandible, the Ramos and the condyle in a retrognathic position. In conclusion, the dislocated class 2 skeletal jaw is functioning outside the glenoid fossa in a distalized position, towards the back of your head occluding on the superficial temporal artery. This causes the only connection the vertex follicle pad has to the body to be cut off ending the growth cycle of the hair follicle pad of the vertex.
Copyright © 2018 Leaf Group Ltd. Use of this web site constitutes acceptance of the LIVESTRONG.COM Terms of Use, Privacy Policy and Copyright Policy. The material appearing on LIVESTRONG.COM is for educational use only. It should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. LIVESTRONG is a registered trademark of the LIVESTRONG Foundation. The LIVESTRONG Foundation and LIVESTRONG.COM do not endorse any of the products or services that are advertised on the web site. Moreover, we do not select every advertiser or advertisement that appears on the web site-many of the advertisements are served by third party advertising companies.
Nowadays, it has become analytical of concerns which are extra serious. Too much hair fall is a main symptom representing alopecia. Unnecessary to say that a strong diet plus lifestyle will perform to you moreover your hair follicles good on the other hand it’s vital to get an ultimate appraisal of your hair loss in order that any option you build in terms of action will be the greatest one for you long-term. Easy lifestyle changes for example receiving 7 hours of sleep, having a glass of water each hour are very important. You have to know that strands are made up of minerals that only water can refill) moreover consuming protein-rich foods at normal intervals can bring a propos an 80 per cent change.
I noticed that Prince William is losing his hair very fast and soon will be as bald as I am. And he is only 35 years old. What a lucky guy! I wonder if Kate Middleton, his wife, loves it as much as my wife loves it? I hope so. I suspect I’m not the only guy out there who loves male pattern baldness and that there are a lot of guys who regret that they will never be bald. I tried shaving off all my hair, but that didn’t satisfy me. I hated the ‘hair shadow’ effect and the stubble that would reappear just hours after shaving. No, I wanted male pattern baldness. I wanted to be permanently smooth and shiny bald on top. I am and couldn’t be happier about it. Hey, if you are going to be bald, it’s much better if you enjoy it and I do enjoy it.
The notion that only middle-aged men experience baldness isn’t only false, it’s damaging. It causes 20-year-old men to feel self-conscious about their hair loss, meaning that most of them refuse to confront the reality that their hair is thinning. Accepting this reality is the first step towards preventing hair loss from accelerating and getting worse.
It can be a horrible situation to be in, but sometimes, you can look at situations like this as a little trigger for change. I've known women who've had long hair all their life, it started to change as they go through the menopause, and they've ended up having their hair cut short. And sometimes, it can make them look so much younger. So, you know, look at these situations, too, and look at ways in which you can make yourself more comfortable with what's actually happening with you.  
The psychology of hair thinning is a complex issue. Hair is considered an essential part of overall identity: especially for women, for whom it often represents femininity and attractiveness. Men typically associate a full head of hair with youth and vigor. Although they may be aware of pattern baldness in their family, many are uncomfortable talking about the issue. Hair thinning is therefore a sensitive issue for both sexes. For sufferers, it can represent a loss of control and feelings of isolation. People experiencing hair thinning often find themselves in a situation where their physical appearance is at odds with their own self-image and commonly worry that they appear older than they are or less attractive to others. Psychological problems due to baldness, if present, are typically most severe at the onset of symptoms.[11]
3 Short Man Style Tips | Real World Examples From Peter Li Hair Styling Products Antonio Recommends | How to Choose Products for Grooming Your Hair What Does A Man’s Bald Head Signal? | Do Men With Shaved Heads Project Dominance & Authority? Look Like A Million with $100 Budget | How To Look Great For 100 Dollars | Dressing Well Doesn’t Cost A Lot?
Hello Alex, I see no reason that those supplements would have made things worse. The only issue might be if the fish oil was oxidised before you consumed it, which can be common with some of the supplements (did you keep it in your fridge.) Anyway, even then I don’t think that could be the reason. Another possible answer is that the older (unhealthy) hairs are being replaced by healthier hairs, hence shedding. However, this probably isn’t the reason either. Your hair loss development is probably just continuing like normal with little affect from the supplements. Seeing a doctor might be a good idea as things will continue to get worse most likely. Please take a look at our Hair Equilibrium program and Grogenix product range. That’s probably how you’ll have most success getting your hair back.
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder also known as "spot baldness" that can result in hair loss ranging from just one location (Alopecia areata monolocularis) to every hair on the entire body (Alopecia areata universalis). Although thought to be caused by hair follicles becoming dormant, what triggers alopecia areata is not known. In most cases the condition corrects itself, but it can also spread to the entire scalp (alopecia totalis) or to the entire body (alopecia universalis).
Trichotillomania, classified as an “impulse control disorder,” causes people to compulsively pull their hair out. “It’s sort of like a tic, the person is constantly playing and pulling their hair,” says Dr. Glashofer says. Unfortunately, this constant playing and pulling can actually strip your head of its natural protection: hair. Trichotillomania often begins before the age of 17 and is four times as common in women as in men.
Phytoestrogenic herbs, such as ginseng or black cohosh, contain estrogenic components produced by plants. These herbs, at first, do treat the underlying hormonal imbalance by introducing these plant-based estrogens into the body. However, as a result of adding outside hormones, a woman's body may become less capable of producing estrogen on its own. This causes a further decrease of the body's own hormone levels.
Investigators found that men who lose their hair in their 20’s have nearly twice as much androgen related activity going on in their scalp as men just beginning to lose hair in their 60’s. This type of hair loss, known as “Senescent” thinning, therefore, is assumed to be due to much different causes than typical Male Pattern Baldness, and, with a little stretch of the imagination, could imply that at this stage in life, inhibiting hormonal processes to stop hair loss may no longer be necessary.
When your hair thins at an early age it can lead to anxiety, self-esteem issues, and lowered satisfaction when it come to your personal appearance. Initially, many guys try to overcome this by wearing a baseball cap or looking for over-the-counter hair thickening shampoos. Some brave souls will accept their genetic fate and go completely bald – but that look doesn’t always work for everyone.
Prescription medications, while effective, can carry high risk and be incredibly expensive. The most common drug therapy for treating the 34 menopause symptoms in the U.S is hormone replacement therapy. This may be a quick and strong way to combat hormonal imbalance, but unfortunately, it entails serious side effects and increases the risk of blood clots and stroke, as the following study has shown.

Take some time to read through our guide to female hair loss, which should give you an indication of what might be causing your problem and what you can do. You can contact The Belgravia Centre any time to arrange a free one-on-one consultation with a hair loss specialist. The good news is that most women’s hair loss conditions are treatable and can be prevented or reversed. Jump to more information on hair loss treatments for women. Please note that results may vary and are not guaranteed.
Bunch of weakasses in the comment section, I literally started rocking a near bald look at around 16. All of a sudden girls talked to me more at school and got more looks for some reason. All you need is the confidence to rock a bald head, I’m 21 now and can tell my hairline is receiding but it doesn’t effect me at all, I like being bald, I look better that way, y’all need to grow some cojones

Finasteride (Propecia) is used in male-pattern hair loss in a pill form, taken 1 milligram per day. It is not indicated for women and is not recommended in pregnant women. Treatment is effective starting within 6 weeks of treatment. Finasteride causes an increase in hair retention, the weight of hair, and some increase in regrowth. Side effects in about 2% of males, include decreased sex drive, erectile dysfunction, and ejaculatory dysfunction. Treatment should be continued as long as positive results occur. Once treatment is stopped, hair loss resumes.[30]
Another perhaps less-considered ailment causing hair loss for men and women in their 20s could be stress. The pressure on young people today to perform well at work and compete in busy UK markets can have a serious effect on long-term stress levels which in turn may cause premature hair loss. Highly-linked to stress is another condition called Trichotillomania whereby sufferers nervously pull out strands of hair repeatedly when they are under pressure.
You will need to apply it twice daily for three to six months before you may notice any results. After a few months you’ll start to notice that you’re shedding less and less hair and within four to eight months you should see new hair growth. The bottle says to apply to the back or “crown” of the head but it can be applied anywhere you have hair loss and can help the mid-portion of your scalp and frontal region as well.
Hi David, I understand where you are coming from. Losing hair at a young age is not a nice experience. Luckily, there is a lot more you could be doing besides the shampoo. Honestly I don’t know how much this will help in the long term. To get you started, you’ll probably have to adjust a few things in your diet and lifestyle to stop further loss/ regrow lost areas. A simple thing to get started would be to use a dermaroller (or even better a dermastamp) along the hairline. Remember though, pattern baldness starts from the inside out. It’s basically a sign that your body is out of balance. So try to sort that out as well.
The notion that only middle-aged men experience baldness isn’t only false, it’s damaging. It causes 20-year-old men to feel self-conscious about their hair loss, meaning that most of them refuse to confront the reality that their hair is thinning. Accepting this reality is the first step towards preventing hair loss from accelerating and getting worse.
When your hair thins at an early age it can lead to anxiety, self-esteem issues, and lowered satisfaction when it come to your personal appearance. Initially, many guys try to overcome this by wearing a baseball cap or looking for over-the-counter hair thickening shampoos. Some brave souls will accept their genetic fate and go completely bald – but that look doesn’t always work for everyone.
When several of my classmates back in my senior year of college went bald (one went bald in about one year) I couldn’t believe my reaction. I was envious. Unbelievably, I wanted to go bald. I wanted to lose all my hair from the top of my head, leaving just a fringe on the sides and back: male pattern baldness. I had no idea guys still in their early 20s could go bald and I was shocked. I couldn’t wait for it to happen to me. I tried to shake off the urge, but had to finally admit to myself that male pattern baldness was I really, really wanted. But not until after I was married. I was afraid that no woman would want me if I was bald. Back then, I had no idea that there are women out there who actually prefer bald men. Lucky for me, I’m married to one of those women. When my wish finally came true in my early 50s, my wife was thrilled and she urged me to just let myself go bald. I did, and it happened very quickly, as if to make up for lost time. After only two years of finding hundreds of hairs on my pillow each morning and wads of my hair plugging our shower drain I was finally bald, male pattern bald. The rapid transition to bald was a very pleasant experience for both my wife and me and I absolutely LOVE being bald. My wife loves it too and still tells me how sexy she thinks it is. I love it when she kisses me on top of my shiny bald head. What a turn on! Going bald was one of the best things that ever happened to me. I just wish it had happened immediately after my wife and I were married, 40 years ago. I wish I had started shedding hair off the top of my head on our honeymoon and had been bald by our second wedding anniversary.
Laser therapy is another option available to young men and women who are experiencing hair loss. A state-of-the-art helmet is worn on top of the head. Inside the helmet are 80 low-level lasers, which help stimulate hair growth. While this may seem like something straight out of a science-fiction novel, laser therapy is showing promising results for many hair loss patients.
!function(e){function n(t){if(r[t])return r[t].exports;var i=r[t]={i:t,l:!1,exports:{}};return e[t].call(i.exports,i,i.exports,n),i.l=!0,i.exports}var t=window.webpackJsonp;window.webpackJsonp=function(n,r,o){for(var s,a,l=0,u=[];l1)for(var t=1;td)return!1;if(p>f)return!1;var e=window.require.hasModule("shared/browser")&&window.require("shared/browser");return!e||!e.opera}function a(){var e="";return"quora.com"==window.Q.subdomainSuffix&&(e+=[window.location.protocol,"//log.quora.com"].join("")),e+="/ajax/log_errors_3RD_PARTY_POST"}function l(){var e=o(h);h=[],0!==e.length&&c(a(),{revision:window.Q.revision,errors:JSON.stringify(e)})}var u=t("./third_party/tracekit.js"),c=t("./shared/basicrpc.js").rpc;u.remoteFetching=!1,u.collectWindowErrors=!0,u.report.subscribe(r);var f=10,d=window.Q&&window.Q.errorSamplingRate||1,h=[],p=0,m=i(l,1e3),w=window.console&&!(window.NODE_JS&&window.UNIT_TEST);n.report=function(e){try{w&&console.error(e.stack||e),u.report(e)}catch(e){}};var y=function(e,n,t){r({name:n,message:t,source:e,stack:u.computeStackTrace.ofCaller().stack||[]}),w&&console.error(t)};n.logJsError=y.bind(null,"js"),n.logMobileJsError=y.bind(null,"mobile_js")},"./shared/globals.js":function(e,n,t){var r=t("./shared/links.js");(window.Q=window.Q||{}).openUrl=function(e,n){var t=e.href;return r.linkClicked(t,n),window.open(t).opener=null,!1}},"./shared/links.js":function(e,n){var t=[];n.onLinkClick=function(e){t.push(e)},n.linkClicked=function(e,n){for(var r=0;r>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0,r=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,i=0;i>>0;if(0===i)return-1;var o=+n||0;if(Math.abs(o)===Infinity&&(o=0),o>=i)return-1;for(t=Math.max(o>=0?o:i-Math.abs(o),0);t>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=new Array(s),i=0;i>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(var r=[],i=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,o=0;o>>0,i=0;if(2==arguments.length)n=arguments[1];else{for(;i=r)throw new TypeError("Reduce of empty array with no initial value");n=t[i++]}for(;i>>0;if(0===i)return-1;for(n=i-1,arguments.length>1&&(n=Number(arguments[1]),n!=n?n=0:0!==n&&n!=1/0&&n!=-1/0&&(n=(n>0||-1)*Math.floor(Math.abs(n)))),t=n>=0?Math.min(n,i-1):i-Math.abs(n);t>=0;t--)if(t in r&&r[t]===e)return t;return-1};t(Array.prototype,"lastIndexOf",c)}if(!Array.prototype.includes){var f=function(e){"use strict";if(null==this)throw new TypeError("Array.prototype.includes called on null or undefined");var n=Object(this),t=parseInt(n.length,10)||0;if(0===t)return!1;var r,i=parseInt(arguments[1],10)||0;i>=0?r=i:(r=t+i)<0&&(r=0);for(var o;r
×